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Below are links to data about weather, climate and global warming for anyone wanting to plot or analyse the data themselves. They includes sources of land and sea surface temperature data and satellite (troposphere) data. There are also links to reports on the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) around the equator, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (see Oceans and Sea Surface), as well as sea ice pages to see what's happening near the poles. And then there is sea level, and CO2 data. Sometimes those CO2 links work, and sometimes they don't. I've plotted some of the data and try to keep the charts up to date. You can view or download a number of charts from here. lists more data sources. Nick Stokes at Moyhu does a lot of data analysis.

Temperature Data

Temperature data sources.

Weather and Climate

Weather and Climate Data

Oceans and Sea Surface

Oceans and Sea Surface Data

El Nino Southern Oscillation

ENSO information sources

Sea Ice Information

Sea Ice

Carbon Dioxide Tracking

CO2 data


Science papers etc.

This is a collection of papers about climate science. It includes some, though not all, of the seminal papers that mark important milestones in either the science or the public's understanding of the science, including some early papers. And in case you think that the public only learnt about greenhouse gases recently, I've started to put together a collection of old newspaper articles on the blog. These show that as long ago as 1884 at least, even people who lived in rural South Australia knew about greenhouse gases (those who read the paper, anyway).

Greenhouse gases...

Attribution of the present‐day total greenhouse effect, Schmidt et al 2010

Gavin Schmidt - Taking the measure of the greenhouse effect - a good article on attribution on the NASA website

Robert A. Berner (2005) GEOCARBSULF: A combined model for Phanerozoic atmospheric O2 and CO2

Robert A. Berner and Zavareth Kothavala (2001) GEOCARB III: A Revised Model of Atmosperic CO2 over Phanerozoic Time

Representative Concentration Pathways: An Overview (2011) van Vuuren et al

Temperature reconstructions

NOAA paleoclimate temperature reconstructions - list of papers and a chart

NASA Vostok ice core records with animated temperature chart

Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature

Mulvaney et al (2012), Nature Recent Antarctic Peninsula warming relative to Holocene climate and ice-shelf history

Miscellaneous pre-1990

Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?by Wallace S. Broecker, published in Science in 1975

Restoring the Quality of Our Environment - Report of the Environmental Pollution Panel President's Science Advisory Committee (to Lyndon B Johnson, 1965) ; Appendix by Roger Revelle et al

The Carbon Dioxide Theory of Climatic Change by Gilbert N. Plass (1956); Tellus Vlll

Hansen testimony to Congressional Committee 1988

Hansen et al 1988 - Global Climate Changes as Forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies Three-Dimensional Model

Miscellaneous Post 1990

IPCC 2007 - compendium of science etc

Four degrees and beyond - Royal Society edition March 2011

Climate literacy article

Copenhagen Diagnosis - update for Copenhagen

State of the Climate - CSIRO / BoM Australia March 2010

State of the Climate 2010 - CSIRO / BoM Australia 2010 updated

The Antarctic Climate (Pew Centre fact sheet)

Antarctic Climate Change and the Environment (SCAR 2009)

Antarctica's Future (SCAR Feb 2010 slides - pdf)

Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget (Kiehl and Trenberth, 1997)

The Definition of El Nino (Trenberth, 1997)

Attribution of the present‐day total greenhouse effect (Schmidt et al, 2010)

Methane presentation 2011

Marine Climate Change in Australia - simple overview - CSIRO

Global Surface Temperature Change - Hansen, Ruedy, Sato, Lo 2010 (description of GISS temperature data records, how they are collected, adjustments etc) - or here

Reconstructed changes in Arctic sea ice over the past 1,450 years, Kinnard et al (Dec 2011), Nature

Trenberth, Kevin E., John T. Fasullo, Jeffrey Kiehl, 2009Earth's Global Energy Budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 311–323.

Kiehl, J. T. and Trenberth, K. E., 1997Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 197-208.

Younger Dryas

Broecker et al (2010) Putting the Younger Dryas Cold Event into Context

Richard B Alley (2000) The Younger Dryas cold interval as viewed from central Greenland

Murton et al (2010) Identification of Younger Dryas outburst flood path from Lake Agassiz to the Arctic Ocean

Teller (2012) Importance of freshwater injections into the Arctic Ocean in triggering the Younger Dryas cooling

Interesting old papers

Meteorologica by Aristotle, circa 350 BC

Remarques générales sur les températures du globe terrestre et des espaces planétaires by Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier 1824 - translated by Ebeneser Burgess.

Mémoire sur les Températures du Globe Terrestre et des Espaces Planétaires. by Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier 1827 - translated by R. T. Pierrehumbert with footnotes by the translator

The Bakerian Lecture.-On the Absorption and Radiation of Heat by Gases and Vapours, and on the Physical Connexion of Radiation, Absorption, and Conduction. By John Tyndall 1861

Svante Arrhenius on atmospheric CO2 and water vapour (1896)

Guy Stewart Callendar (1938) - The Artificial Production of Carbon Dioxide and its Influence on Temperature

Wood's note on how greenhouses stay hot (1909)

Ingenhousz and photosynthesis (1799)

First newspaper mention of 'global warming' and 'climate changes' - 1957 ?

Social, economic and other policy reports

IEA 2011 CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (Highlights - statistics)

Multi-party committee - Clean Energy Agreement - Australia - Carbon Pricing Scheme

Prof Ross Garnaut report on emissions control strategies (Australia)

Securing our Water Future (Prof Bill Russell review for Victorian Government, Australia) 

Lord Stern review on economics of climate change (UK)

How to avoid being swiftboated (Juan Cole)

Science papers, Journals, Societies etc

Classical papers from the history of chemistry



ACP papers in open discussion 

Extinction of Marine Invertebrates - Jeremy B C Jackson

Methane presentation 2011

Australian science papers and reports

Gallant, Ailie J. E., David J. Karoly, 2010: A Combined Climate Extremes Index for the Australian Region. J. Climate, 23, 6153–6165

The Age article on the above

Karoly article on 2009 fires in

Weather chaos and climate

RealClimate - Butterflies, tornadoes and climate modelling

Tamino on Chaos

Stoat illustrating chaos and climate models

Skeptical Science - Chaos theory and global warming: can climate be predicted?

Edward Lorenz (1972) - The Butterfly Effect

RealClimate - Chaos and Climate

Wikipedia - Chaos Theory

Climate topics

This is a collection of papers, blog articles and science discussions about specific topics in climate science. I put it together to list some of the papers I looked at when writing the article about albedo, then added some about solar (in the light of various people suggesting the sun will become less active in the near term.) I'll add to it over time. If you want a topic or favourite paper listed here, send me an email.

Albedo | Solar | Antarctica


Below are some papers relating to albedo - recent as well as older papers...

Crook, J. A., and P. M. Forster. "Comparison of surface albedo feedback in climate models and observations." Geophysical Research Letters 41, no. 5 (2014): 1717-1723. DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059280 (open access)

Donohoe, Aaron, and David S. Battisti. "Atmospheric and surface contributions to planetary albedo." Journal of Climate 24, no. 16 (2011): 4402-4418. doi: (open access)

Feulner, Georg, Stefan Rahmstorf, Anders Levermann, and Silvia Volkwardt. "On the origin of the surface air temperature difference between the hemispheres in earth's present-day climate." Journal of Climate 26, no. 18 (2013): 7136-7150. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00636.1 (pdf here)

Hall, Alex. "The role of surface albedo feedback in climate." Journal of Climate 17, no. 7 (2004): 1550-1568. doi:<1550:TROSAF>2.0.CO;2 (open access)

He, Tao, Shunlin Liang, and Dan‐Xia Song. "Analysis of global land surface albedo climatology and spatial‐temporal variation during 1981–2010 from multiple satellite products." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119, no. 17 (2014): 10-281. DOI: 10.1002/2014JD021667 (pdf here) - Note: This paper gives a description of the various satellites used to calculate measures of albedo.

Kato, Seiji. "Interannual variability of the global radiation budget." Journal of Climate 22, no. 18 (2009): 4893-4907. (open access)

Kukla, G., and D. Robinson. "Annual cycle of surface albedo." Monthly Weather Review 108, no. 1 (1980): 56-68. doi:<0056:ACOSA>2.0.CO;2 (open access)

Liu, Zhengjia, Quanqin Shao, Jian Tao, and Wenfeng Chi. "Intra-annual variability of satellite observed surface albedo associated with typical land cover types in China." Journal of Geographical Sciences 25, no. 1 (2015): 35-44. DOI 10.1007/s11442-015-1151-5 (pdf here)

Loeb, Norman G., Bruce A. Wielicki, Fred G. Rose, and David R. Doelling. "Variability in global top‐of‐atmosphere shortwave radiation between 2000 and 2005." Geophysical Research Letters 34, no. 3 (2007). DOI: 10.1029/2006GL028196 (pdf here)

Pallé, E., P. R. Goode, V. Yurchyshyn, J. Qiu, J. Hickey, P. Montañés Rodriguez, M‐C. Chu, E. Kolbe, C. T. Brown, and S. E. Koonin. "Earthshine and the Earth's albedo: 2. Observations and simulations over 3 years." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012) 108, no. D22 (2003). doi:10.1029/2003JD003611, 2003 (open access)

Pistone, Kristina, Ian Eisenman, and V. Ramanathan. "Observational determination of albedo decrease caused by vanishing Arctic sea ice." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, no. 9 (2014): 3322-3326. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1318201111 (open access)

Qu, Xin, and Alex Hall. "Surface contribution to planetary albedo variability in cryosphere regions." Journal of Climate 18, no. 24 (2005): 5239-5252. doi: (open access)

Robock, Alan. "The seasonal cycle of snow cover, sea ice and surface albedo." Monthly Weather Review 108, no. 3 (1980): 267-285. doi:<0267:TSCOSC>2.0.CO;2 (open access)

Rutan, David, T. Charlock, Fred Rose, Seiji Kato, Scott Zentz, and Lisa Coleman. "Global surface albedo from CERES/TERRA surface and atmospheric radiation budget (SARB) data product." In Proceedings of 12th conference on atmospheric radiation (AMS), pp. 10-14. 2006. (pdf here)

Stephens, Graeme L., Denis O'Brien, Peter J. Webster, Peter Pilewski, Seiji Kato, and Jui‐lin Li. "The albedo of Earth." Reviews of Geophysics 53, no. 1 (2015): 141-163. DOI: 10.1002/2014RG000449 (pdf here)

Stephens, Graeme L., Juilin Li, Martin Wild, Carol Anne Clayson, Norman Loeb, Seiji Kato, Tristan L'Ecuyer, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr, Matthew Lebsock, and Timothy Andrews. "An update on Earth's energy balance in light of the latest global observations." Nature Geoscience 5, no. 10 (2012): 691-696. doi:10.1038/ngeo1580 (pdf here)

Stephens, G. L., G. G. Campbell, and T. H. Haar. "Earth radiation budgets." Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012) 86, no. C10 (1981): 9739-9760. (open access)

Sun, Wenbo, Norman G. Loeb, Roger Davies, Konstantin Loukachine, and Walter F. Miller. "Comparison of MISR and CERES top‐of‐atmosphere albedo." Geophysical research letters 33, no. 23 (2006). DOI: 10.1029/2006GL027958 (open access)

Thackeray, C. W., C. G. Fletcher, and C. Derksen (2015), Quantifying the skill of CMIP5 models in simulating seasonal albedo and snow cover evolution, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023325

Turner, J., W. M. Connolley, T. A. Lachlan‐Cope, and G. J. Marshall. "The performance of the Hadley Centre Climate Model (HadCM3) in high southern latitudes." International journal of climatology 26, no. 1 (2006): 91-112. DOI: 10.1002/joc.1260 (open access)

Reflections from surface and clouds - is there an albedo expert in the house? - HotWhopper July 2015

Read all albedo references...


Solar minimum

There are some scientists who think that the sun is heading for a solar minimum. These are some relevant recent papers, articles and scientific discussions on the subject and what it might mean at the regional and global level, and in the context of greenhouse warming. Notice that some of these papers are very recent (2015), with thanks to TB for some of the references. Mike Lockwood's 2009 paper is an excellent overview of solar science itself as well as how it relates to climate.

Anet, J. G., E. V. Rozanov, S. Muthers, T. Peter, S. Brönnimann, F. Arfeuille, J. Beer et al. "Impact of a potential 21st century “grand solar minimum” on surface temperatures and stratospheric ozone." Geophysical Research Letters 40, no. 16 (2013): 4420-4425. doi:10.1002/grl.50806, 2013 (pdf here)

Feulner, Georg, and Stefan Rahmstorf. "On the effect of a new grand minimum of solar activity on the future climate on Earth." Geophysical Research Letters37, no. 5 (2010). DOI: 10.1029/2010GL042710 (open access)

What if the Sun went into a new Grand Minimum? RealClimate article from 2011 about Fuelner and Rahmstorf 2010

Lockwood, Mike. "Solar change and climate: an update in the light of the current exceptional solar minimum." In Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, p. rspa20090519. The Royal Society, 2009. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2009.0519 (open access)

Lockwood, Mike. "Was UV spectral solar irradiance lower during the recent low sunspot minimum?." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012) 116, no. D16 (2011). DOI: (pdf here)

Ineson, Sarah, Amanda C. Maycock, Lesley J. Gray, Adam A. Scaife, Nick J. Dunstone, Jerald W. Harder, Jeff R. Knight, Mike Lockwood, James C. Manners, and Richard A. Wood. "Regional climate impacts of a possible future grand solar minimum." Nature communications 6 (2015). doi:10.1038/ncomms8535 (open access)

Maycock, A. C., S. Ineson, L. J. Gray, A. A. Scaife, J. A. Anstey, M. Lockwood, N. Butchart, S. C. Hardiman, D. M. Mitchell, and S. M. Osprey. "Possible impacts of a future Grand Solar Minimum on climate: Stratospheric and global circulation changes." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (2015). DOI: 10.1002/2014JD022022 (open access)

Meehl, Gerald A., Julie M. Arblaster, and Daniel R. Marsh. "Could a future “Grand Solar Minimum” like the Maunder Minimum stop global warming?." Geophysical Research Letters 40, no. 9 (2013): 1789-1793. doi:10.1002/grl.50361, 2013 (open access)

What will happen during a new Maunder Minimum? Climate dialogue discussion October 2014, with Mike Lockwood (UK), Nicola Scafetta (US), Jan-Erik Solheim (NO), José Vaquero (ES) and Ilya Usoskin (FI).

Read all solar references...

Antarctic References

References from: Harig, Christopher, and Frederik J. Simons. "Accelerated West Antarctic ice mass loss continues to outpace East Antarctic gains." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 415 (2015): 134-141. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2015.01.029

Baur, O., Kuhn, M., Featherstone, W.E., 2009. GRACE-derived ice-mass variations over Greenland by accounting for leakage effects. J. Geophys. Res.114, B06407.

Baur, O., Sneeuw, N., 2011. Assessing Greenland ice mass loss by means of point-mass modeling: a viable methodology. J. Geod.85 (9), 607–615.

Berthier, E., Scambos, T.A., Shuman, C.A., 2012. Mass loss of Larsen B tributary glaciers (Antarctic Peninsula) unabated since 2002. Geophys. Res. Lett.39 (13), L13501.

Bettadpur, S., the CSR Level-2 Team, 2012. Insights into the Earth system mass variability from CSR-RL05 GRACE gravity fields. Geophys. Res. Abstr.14, 6409.

Bintanja, R., van Oldenborgh, G.J., Drijfhout, S.S., Wouters, B., Katsman, C.A., 2013. Important role for ocean warming and increased ice-shelf melt in Antarctic sea-ice expansion. Nat. Geosci.6 (5), 376–379.

Boening, C., Lebsock, M., Landerer, F., Stephens, G., 2012. Snowfall-driven mass change on the East Antarctic ice sheet. Geophys. Res. Lett.39, L21501.

Bonin, J., Chambers, D., 2013. Uncertainty estimates of a GRACE inversion modelling technique over Greenland using a simulation. Geophys. J. Int.194 (1), 212–229.

Bouman, J., Fuchs, M., Ivins, E., van der Wal, W., Schrama, E., Visser, P., Horwath, M., 2014. Antarctic outlet glacier mass change resolved at basin scale from satel-lite gravity gradiometry. Geophys. Res. Lett.41 (16), 5919–5926.

Bromwich, D.H., Nicolas, J.P., Monaghan, A.J., Lazzara, M.A., Keller, L.M., Weid-ner, G.A., Wilson, A.B., 2013. Central West Antarctica among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth. Nat. Geosci.6, 139–145.

Chen, J.L., Wilson, C.R., Blankenship, D., Tapley, B.D., 2009. Accelerated Antarctic ice loss from satellite gravity measurements. Nat. Geosci.2, 859–862.

Chen, J.L., Wilson, C.R., Tapley, B.D., 2006. Satellite gravity measurements confirm accelerated melting of Greenland ice sheet. Science313, 1958–1960.

Chen, J.L., Wilson, C.R., Tapley, B.D., Blankenship, D., Young, D., 2008. Antarctic re-gional ice loss rates from GRACE. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.266, 140–148.

Cheng, M., Tapley, B.D., Ries, J.C., 2013. Deceleration in the Earth’s oblateness. J.Geo-phys. Res.118, 740–747.

Cook, C.P., van de Flierdt, T., Williams, T., Hemming, S.R., Iwai, M., Kobayashi, M., Jimenez-Espejo, F.J., Escutia, C., González, J.J., Khim, B.-K., McKay, R.M., Passchier, S., Bohaty, S.M., Riesselman, C.R., Tauxe, L., Sugisaki, S., Galindo, A.L., Patterson, M.O., Sangiorgi, F., Pierce, E.L., Brinkhuis, H., Expedition 318 Scientists, I, 2013. Dynamic behaviour of the East Antarctic ice sheet during Pliocene warmth. Nat. Geosci.6, 765–769.

Dahle, C., Flechtner, F., Gruber, C., König, D., König, R., Michalak, G., Neumayer, K.-H., 2013. GFZ GRACE Level-2 processing standards document for Level-2 product release 0005. Tech. rep. GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam, Germany.

Eicker, A., Schall, J., Kusche, J., 2014. Regional gravity modelling from spaceborne data: case studies with GOCE. Geophys. J. Int.196, 1431–1440.

Han, S.-C., Rowlands, D.D., Luthcke, S.B., Lemoine, F.G., 2008. Localized analysis of satellite tracking data for studying time-variable Earth’s gravity fields. J. Geo-phys. Res.113, B06401.

Hanna, E., Navarro, F.J., Pattyn, F., Domingues, C.M., Fettweis, X., Ivins, E.R., Nicholls, R.J., Ritz, C., Smith, B., Tulaczyk, S., Whitehouse, P.L., Zwally, H.J., 2013. Ice-sheet mass balance and climate change. Nature498 (7452), 51–59.

Harig, C., Lewis, K.W., Plattner, A., Simons, F.J., in press. A suite of software analyzes data on the sphere. Eos Trans. AGU.

Harig, C., Simons, F.J., 2012. Mapping Greenland’s mass loss in space and time. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA109 (49), 19934–19937.

Horwath, M., Legrésy, B., Rémy, F., Blarel, F., Lemoine, J.-M., 2012. Consistent patterns of Antarctic ice sheet interannual variations from ENVISAT radar altimetry and GRACE satellite gravimetry. Geophys. J. Int.189, 863–876.–246X.2012.05401.x.

Ivins, E.R., James, T.S., Wahr, J., Schrama, E.J.O., Landerer, F.W., Simon, K.M., 2013. Antarctic contribution to sea level rise observed by GRACE with im-proved GIA correction. J. Geophys. Res.118, 3126–3141.

Jacob, T., Wahr, J., Pfeffer, W.T., Swenson, S., 2012. Recent contributions of glaciers and ice caps to sea level rise. Nature482 (7386), 514–518.

Joughin, I., Smith, B.E., Medley, B., 2014. Marine ice sheet collapse potentially un-der way for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica. Science344 (6185), 735–738. http:/

Joughin, I., Tulaczyk, S., 2002. Positive mass balance of the Ross Ice Streams, West Antarctica. Science295 (5554), 476–480.

King, M.A., 2013. Progress in modelling and observing Antarctic glacial iso-static adjustment. Astron. Geophys.54 (4), 4.33–4.38.

King, M.A., Bingham, R.J., Moore, P., Whitehouse, P.K., Bentley, M.J., Milne, G.A., 2012. Lower satellite-gravimetry estimates of Antarctic sea-level contribution. Nature, 586–589.

Kopp, R.E., Simons, F.J., Mitrovica, J.X., Maloof, A.C., Oppenheimer, M., 2013. A probabilistic assessment of sea level variations within the last interglacial stage. Geophys. J. Int.193 (2), 711–716.

le Meur, E., Huybrechts, P., 1996. A comparison of different ways of dealing with isostasy: examples from modeling the Antarctic ice sheet during the last glacial cycle. Ann. Glaciol.23, 309–317.

Lee, H., Shum, C.K., Howat, I.M., Monaghan, A., Ahn, Y., Duan, J., Guo, J.-Y., Kuyo, C., Wang, L., 2012. Continuously accelerating ice loss over Amundsen Sea catch-ment, West Antarctica, revealed by integrating altimetry and GRACE data. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.321–322, 74–80.

Lenaerts, J.T.M., van den Broeke, M.R., van de Berg, W.J., van Meijgaard, E., Munneke, P.K., 2012. A new, high-resolution surface mass balance map of Antarctica (1979–2010) based on regional atmospheric climate modeling. Geophys. Res. Lett.39, L04501.

Lenaerts, J.T.M., van Meijgaard, E., van den Broeke, M.R., Ligtenberg, S.R.M., Horwath, M., Isaksson, E., 2013. Recent snowfall anomalies in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, in a historical and future climate perspective. Geophys. Res. Lett.40 (11), 2684–2688.

Little, C.M., Oppenheimer, M., Urban, N.M., 2013a. Upper bounds on twenty-first-century Antarctic ice loss assessed using a probabilistic framework. Nat. Climate Change3, 654–659.

Little, C.M., Urban, N.M., Oppenheimer, M., 2013b. Probabilistic framework for as-sessing the ice sheet contribution to sea level change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA110 (9), 1–6.

Longuevergne, L., Scanlon, B.R., Wilson, C.R., 2010. GRACE hydrological estimates for small basins: evaluating processing approaches on the High Plains Aquifer, USA. Water Resour. Res.46 (11), W11517.

Luthcke, S.B., Rowlands, D.D., Lemoine, F.G., Klosko, S.M., Chinn, D., McCarthy, J.J., 2006. Monthly spherical harmonic gravity field solutions determined from GRACE inter-satellite range-rate data alone. Geophys. Res. Lett.33 (2), L02402.

Luthcke, S.B., Sabaka, T.J., Loomis, B.D., Arendt, A.A., McCarthy, J.J., Camp, J., 2013. Antarctica, Greenland and Gulf of Alaska land-ice evolution from an iterated GRACE global mascon solution. J. Glaciol.59 (216), 613–631.

Mitrovica, J.X., Gomez, N., Morrow, E., Hay, C., Latychev, K., Tamisiea, M.E., 2011. On the robustness of predictions of sea level fingerprints. Geophys. J. Int.187 (2), 729–742.

Oppenheimer, M., 1998. Global warming and the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Nature393 (6683), 325–332.

Overpeck, J.T., Otto-Bliesner, B.L., Miller, G.H., Muhs, D.R., Alley, R.B., Kiehl, J.T., 2006. Paleoclimatic evidence for future ice-sheet instability and rapid sea-level rise. Science311 (5768), 1747–1750.

Pritchard, H.D., Arthern, R.J., Vaughan, D.G., Edwards, L.A., 2009. Extensive dynamic thinning on the margins of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Nature461, 971–975.

Pritchard, H.D., Ligtenberg, S.R.M., Fricker, H.A., Vaughan, D.G., den Broeke, M.R.V., Padman, L., 2012. Antarctic ice-sheet loss driven by basal melting of ice shelves. Nature484 (7395), 502–505.

Pritchard, H.D., Vaughan, D.G., 2007. Widespread acceleration of tidewater glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. J. Geophys. Res.112 (F3), F03S29.

Raymo, M.E., Mitrovica, J.X., 2012. Collapse of polar ice sheets during the stage 11 interglacial. Nature483, 453–456.

Rignot, E., 2006. Changes in ice dynamics and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., Ser. A364, 1637–1655.

Rignot, E., 2008. Changes in West Antarctic ice stream dynamics observed with ALOS PALSAR data. Geophys. Res. Lett.35, L12505.

Rignot, E., Bamber, J.L., van den Broeke, M.R., Davis, C., Li, Y., van de Berg, W.J., van Meijgaard, E., 2008a. Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interfer-ometry and regional climate modelling. Nat. Geosci.1 (2), 106–110.

Rignot, E., Box, J.E., Burgess, E., Hanna, E., 2008b. Mass balance of the Green-land ice sheet from 1958 to 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett.35 (20), L20502.

Rignot, E., Casassa, G., Gogineni, P., Krabill, W., Rivera, A., Thomas, R., 2004. Accelerated ice discharge from the Antarctic Peninsula following the col-lapse of Larsen B ice shelf. Geophys. Res. Lett.31, L18401.

Rignot, E., Jacobs, S., Mouginot, J., Scheuchl, B., 2013. Ice-shelf melting around Antarctica. Science341 (6143), 266–270.

Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., Morlighem, M., Seroussi, H., Scheuchl, B., 2014. Widespread, rapid grounding line retreat of Pine Island, Thwaites, Smith, and Kohler glaciers, West Antarctica, from 1992 to 2011. Geophys. Res. Lett.41 (10), 3502–3509.

Rignot, E., Mouginot, J., Scheuchl, B., 2011. Ice flow of the Antarctic ice sheet. Sci-ence333, 1427–1430.

Rott, H., Floricioiu, D., Wuite, J., Scheiblauer, S., Nagler, T., Kern, M., 2014. Mass changes of outlet glaciers along the Nordensjköld Coast, northern Antarctic Peninsula, based on TanDEM-X satellite measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett.41 (22), 8123–8129.

Rowlands, D.D., Luthcke, S.B., Klosko, S.M., Lemoine, F.G.R., Chinn, D.S., McCarthy, J.J., Cox, C.M., Anderson, O.B., 2005. Resolving mass flux at high spatial and tempo-ral resolution using GRACE intersatellite measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett.32, L04310.

Rowlands, D.D., Luthcke, S.B., McCarthy, J.J., Klosko, S.M., Chinn, D.S., Lemoine, F.G., Boy, J.-P., Sabaka, T.J., 2010. Global mass flux solutions from GRACE: a comparison of parameter estimation strategies — mass concentrations ver-sus Stokes coefficients. J. Geophys. Res.115 (B1), B01403.

Rye, C.D., Garabato, A.C.N., Holland, P.R., Meredith, M.P., Nurser, A.J.G., Hughes, C.W., Coward, A.C., Webb, D.J., 2014. Rapid sea-level rise along the Antarctic mar-gins in response to increased glacial discharge. Nat. Geosci.7 (10), 732–735.

Sasgen, I., Konrad, H., Ivins, E.R., den Broeke, M.R.V., Bamber, J.L., Martinec, Z., Kle-mann, V., 2013. Antarctic ice-mass balance 2003 to 2012: regional reanalysis of GRACE satellite gravimetry measurements with improved estimate of glacial-isostatic adjustment based on GPS uplift rates. The Cryosphere7, 1499–1512.

Sasgen, I., Martinec, Z., Bamber, J.L., 2010. Combined GRACE and InSAR esti-mate of West Antarctic ice mass loss. J. Geophys. Res.115, F04010.

Sasgen, I., van den Broeke, M., Bamber, J.L., Rignot, E., Sørensen, L.S., Wouters, B., Martinec, Z., Velicogna, I., Simonsen, S.B., 2012. Timing and origin of recent regional ice-mass loss in Greenland. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.333–334, 293–303.

Schmidt, M., Fengler, M., Mayer-Gürr, T., Eicker, A., Kusche, J., Sánchez, L., Han, S.-C., 2007. Regional gravity modeling in terms of spherical base functions. J. Geod.81 (1), 17–38.

Schmidt, M., Han, S.-C., Kusche, J., Sanchez, L., Shum, C.K., 2006. Regional high-resolution spatiotemporal gravity modeling from GRACE data using spherical wavelets. Geophys. Res. Lett.33 (8), L0840.

Schrama, E.J.O., Wouters, B., Rietbroek, R., 2014. A mascon approach to assess ice sheet and glacier mass balances and their uncertainties from GRACE data. J.Geophys. Res.119 (7), 6048–6066.

Shepherd, A., Ivins, E.R.A.G., Barletta, V.R., Bentley, M.J., Bettadpur, S., Briggs, K.H., Bromwich, D.H., Forsberg, R., Galin, N., Horwath, M., Jacobs, S., Joughin, I., King, M.A., Lenaerts, J.T.M., Li, J., Ligtenberg, S.R.M., Luckman, A., Luthcke, S.B., McMillan, M., Meister, R., Milne, G., Mouginot, J., Muir, A., Nicolas, J.P., Paden, J., Payne, A.J., Pritchard, H., Rignot, E., Rott, H., Sørensen, L.S., Scam-bos, A., Scheuchl, B., Schrama, E.J.O., Smith, B., Sundal, A.V., vanAngelen, J.H., vandeBerg, W.J., vandenBroeke, M.R., Vaughan, D.G., Velicogna, I., Wahr, J., Whitehouse, P.L., Wingham, D.J., Yi, D., Young, D., Zwally, H.J., 2012. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance. Science338, 1183–1189.

Simons, F.J., 2010. Slepian functions and their use in signal estimation and spectral analysis. In: Freeden, W., Nashed, M.Z., Sonar, T. (Eds.), Handbook of Geomathe-matics. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp.891–923. Ch. 30.

Simons, F.J., Dahlen, F.A., 2006. Spherical Slepian functions and the polar gap in geodesy. Geophys. J. Int.166, 1039–1061.

Simons, F.J., Dahlen, F.A., 2007. A spatiospectral localization approach to estimating potential fields on the surface of a sphere from noisy, incomplete data taken at satellite altitudes. In: VandeVille, D., Goyal, V.K., Papadakis, M. (Eds.), Wavelets XII. In: Proc. SPIE, vol.6701, p.670117.

Simons, F.J., Dahlen, F.A., Wieczorek, M.A., 2006. Spatiospectral concentration on a sphere. SIAM Rev.48 (3), 504–536.

Simons, F.J., Hawthorne, J.C., Beggan, C.D., 2009. Efficient analysis and representation of geophysical processes using localized spherical basis functions. In: Goyal, V.K., Papadakis, M., VandeVille, D. (Eds.), Wavelets XIII. In: Proc. SPIE, vol.7446, p.74460G.

Simons, F.J., Wang, D.V., 2011. Spatiospectral concentration in the Cartesian plane. Int. J. Geomath.2 (1), 1–36.

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Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S.K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., Midgley, P.M. (Eds.), 2013. Climate Change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report. Tech. rep. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, UK.

Swenson, S., Chambers, D., Wahr, J., 2008. Estimating geocenter variations from a combination of GRACE and ocean model output. J. Geophys. Res.113, B08410.

Swenson, S., Wahr, J.M., 2006. Post-processing removal of correlated errors in GRACE data. Geophys. Res. Lett.33 (8), L08402.

Velicogna, I., Sutterley, T.C., van den Broeke, M.R., 2014. Regional acceleration in ice mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica using GRACE time-variable gravity data. Geophys. Res. Lett.41 (22), 8130–8137.

Velicogna, I., Wahr, J.M., 2006. Measurements of time-variable gravity show mass loss in Antarctica. Science443, 1754–1756.

Velicogna, I., Wahr, J., 2013. Time-variable gravity observations of ice sheet mass balance: precision and limitations of the GRACE satellite data. Geophys. Res. Lett.40, 3055–3063.

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Whitehouse, P.L., Bentley, M.J., Milne, G.A., King, M.A., Thomas, I.D., 2012. A new glacial isostatic adjustment model for Antarctica: calibrated and tested using observations of relative sea-level change and present-day uplift rates. Geophys. J. Int.190 (3), 1464–1482.–246X.2012.05557.x.

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Wouters, B., Chambers, D., Schrama, E.J.O., 2008. GRACE observes small-scale mass loss in Greenland. Geophys. Res. Lett.35, L20501.

Zwally, H.J., Giovinetto, M.B., Beckley, M.A., Saba, J.L., 2012. Antarctic and Green-land drainage systems. GSFC Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory. Greenbelt, Md.

Read all Antarctic References...



Interesting bits and pieces

This collection includes odds and sods of material I refer to or that I've picked up along the way and want to have at my fingertips. For example, there are some handy articles about temperature data adjustments, homogenisation and time of observation bias. And there are articles on the greenhouse effect and some on energy balance.

I haven't sorted these all that well.

Climate models

Demystifying Climate Models - ebook by Andrew Gettelman and Richard B. Rood - free download.

El Nino Southern Oscillation

The three phases of ENSO Australian Bureau of Meteorology

Greenhouse effect and CO2

The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change - Bureau of Meteorology booklet - very good.

The CO2 problem in six easy steps - from

Earth's energy balance - simple explanation of greenhouse gases from NASA

What's really warming the world - Bloomberg infographic


Rethinking wedges ERL 2013 on if we stabilised carbon or cut emissions to zero


Thin Ice: Geologist Simon Lamb followed scientists at work. Click here to go to the website of Thin Ice and watch the videos.

14k science papers show climate change is real +/- caused by humans

Separating signal from noise in surface temperature - Santer quotes

Published Santer paper on separating signal from noise 2011

Pdf presentation on separating signal from noise Santer

Temperature Anomalies and Time of Observation Bias

Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, Mki. Sato, and K. Lo, 2010: Global surface temperature change. Rev. Geophys., 48, RG4004, doi:10.1029/2010RG000345. A description of the surface temperature record with detailed discussion of the types of adjustments to the data.

Victor Venema on time of observation bias

Ice and stuff

Pine Island Glacier

Paleoclimatology: The Ice Core Record - NASA

SciAm: Using Nitrogen 15 isotopes to date CO2 in ice cores (March 13)

British Antarctic Survey: Ice Core Briefing

Oxygen isotopes and their use in paleoclimatology a very readable overview for the layperson (from NASA)

Arctic ice 2007 NSIDC

Arctic Report Card 2013 NOAA

Arctic sea ice recent history - overview - blog

Iceland meteorology

Arctic maps

 Other unsorted

Tropical cyclone FAQ - from the Bureau of Meteorology, Australia

Forests are dying - 2010 article about pine beetle and other dying forests around the world - Diana Six - by Jim Robbins

Solar radiation spectrum from Wikipedia

Tamino and all that data

Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum - when the global temperature rose a whole 6 degrees Celsius in the short time of 20,000 years

All humans (and all Australia) emit a lot more CO2 than all the world's volcanoes Full paper here

Jeff Master's recap of 2010

Jeff Master's Top Ten Global Weather Events 2011

8 Insanely Gigantic Solar Plants in Construction - via SolarFeeds - 30 April 2011

Here is a paper showing why heat stress can kill

Heat waves: John Nairn and Robert Fawcett (2013), Defining heatwaves: heatwave defined as a heat impact event servicing all community and business sectors in Australia, The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Technical Report No. 060

The Water Cycle - NASA Film commemorating the first orbit by Yuri Gagarin, with music by Philip Sheppard

Interview with Noam Chomsky on climate, health and other matters affecting the USA and the world

Human evolution

Human migration and evolution paper by Doran Behar in 2008

Wikipedia article on human evolution

CO2 and human health


Inhofe's 400 deniers

Does Monckton ever tell the truth? Debunking of Monckton's misinformation by Abraham

USA political contributions etc

Are you more informed than a Fox News viewer?


USA radar loop

Atmoz 400 ppm wager - 2010 based on data now shifted to here

Joseph Priestly biography by TE Thorpe FRS, 1906

Conservative scientists

NASA Global Climate Change - vital signs of the planet

The Thomson Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes - Allen et al (2000)


PM Julia Gillard on misogyny (nothing to do with climate) October 2012



Temperature data sources

  • NASA GISS surface temperature The instrumental land and sea surface temperature since 1880 from NASA
  • HadCRUT4 The instrumental land and sea surface temperature since 1850 from The UK Met Office Hadley Centre
  • HADCRUT The instrumental land and sea surface temperature since 1850 from Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, UK
  • Berkeley Earth (BEST) instrumental land and sea surface data
  • RSS data (Satellite): download page for the satellite-derived temperature of the troposphere
  • University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) data (Satellite) - Download page for data, including monthly means of lower troposphere temperature
  • Global atmospheric temperatures - latest  visual temperature data display from AMSU (Satellite) for different heights in the atmosphere

Weather and climate data


Ocean and Sea Surface Data

Pacific Decadal Oscillation:

Earth null school


El Nino Southern Oscillation ENSO


Sea Ice Information Sources

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